The Science Behind Spermidine.
Our curated collection of scientific research to help guide your discoveries of spermidine and its potential health benefits.
A spermidine-based nutritional supplement prolongs the anagen phase of hair follicles in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study
Spermidine has been shown both in vitro and in mice models to have an anagen-prolonging effect on hair follicles (HFs). To evaluate the effects of a spermidine-based nutritional supplement on the anagen phase of HFs in healthy human subjects in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. One hundred healthy males and females were randomized to receive a tablet containing a spermidine-based nutritional supplement or a placebo once daily for 90 days.
Spermidine promotes human hair growth and is a novel modulator of human epithelial stem cell functions.
Rapidly regenerating tissues need sufficient polyamine synthesis. Since the hair follicle (HF) is a highly proliferative mini-organ, polyamines may also be important for normal hair growth. However, the role of polyamines in human HF biology and their effect on HF epithelial stem cells in situ remains largely unknown.
Induction of autophagy by spermidine promotes longevity.
Ageing results from complex genetically and epigenetically programmed processes that are elicited in part by noxious or stressful events that cause programmed cell death. Here, we report that administration of spermidine, a natural polyamine whose intracellular concentration declines during human ageing, markedly extended the lifespan of yeast, flies and worms, and human immune cells.
Spermidine: a physiological autophagy inducer acting as an anti-aging vitamin in humans?
Spermidine is a natural polyamine that stimulates cytoprotective macroautophagy/autophagy. External supplementation of spermidine extends lifespan and health span across species, including in yeast, nematodes, flies and mice. In humans, spermidine levels decline with aging, and a possible connection between reduced endogenous spermidine concentrations and age-related deterioration has been suggested.
Higher spermidine intake is linked to lower mortality: a prospective population-based study.
Spermidine administration is linked to increased survival in several animal models. The aim of this study was to test the potential association between spermidine content in diet and mortality in humans. This prospective community-based cohort study included 829 participants aged 45–84 y, 49.9% of whom were male. Diet was assessed by repeated dietitian-administered validated food-frequency questionnaires (2540 assessments) in 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. During follow-up between 1995 and 2015, 341 deaths occurred.
The importance of dietary polyamines in cell regeneration and growth.
The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are essential for cell renewal and, therefore, are needed to keep the body healthy. It was previously believed that polyamines are synthesized by every cell in the body when required. However, in the present paper evidence is provided to show that, as in the case of the essential amino acids, the diet can supply sufficient amounts of polyamines to support cell renewal and growth.
Spermidine Prolongs Lifespan and Prevents Liver Fibrosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Activating MAP1S-Mediated Autophagy.
Liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have worldwide impact but continue to lack safe, low cost, and effective treatments. In this study, we show how the simple polyamine spermidine can relieve cancer cell defects in autophagy, which trigger oxidative stress-induced cell death and promote liver fibrosis and HCC.
Spermidine Confers Liver Protection by Enhancing NRF2 Signaling Through a MAP1S-Mediated Noncanonical Mechanism.
Spermidine (SPD), a naturally occurring polyamine, has been recognized as a caloric restriction mimetic that confers health benefits, presumably by inducing autophagy. Recent studies have reported that oral administration of SPD protects against liver fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis through activation of microtubule associated protein 1S (MAP1S)–mediated autophagy.
Induction of autophagy by spermidine is neuroprotective via inhibition of caspase 3-mediated Beclin 1 cleavage.
Spermidine, a natural polyamine presented widely in mammalian cells, has been implicated to extend the lifespan of several model organisms by inducing autophagy. However, the effect of spermidine against neuronal damage has not yet been fully determined. In this study, neuronal cell injury was induced by treating PC12 cells and cortical neurons with 1 μM staurosporine (STS). We found that STS-induced cell injury could be efficiently attenuated by pretreatment with 1 mM spermidine.
Influence of microRNA deregulation on chaperone-mediated autophagy and a-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease.
The presence of α-synuclein aggregates in the characteristic Lewy body pathology seen in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD), together with α-synuclein gene mutations in familial PD, places α-synuclein at the center of PD pathogenesis. Decreased levels of the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) proteins LAMP-2A and hsc70 in PD brain samples suggests compromised α-synuclein degradation by CMA may underpin the Lewy body pathology.
Autophagy activators rescue and alleviate pathogenesis of a mouse model with proteinopathies of the TAR DNA-binding protein 43.
TDP-43 is a multifunctional DNA/RNA-binding protein that has been identified as the major component of the cytoplasmic ubiquitin (+) inclusions (UBIs) in diseased cells of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Unfortunately, effective drugs for these neurodegenerative diseases are yet to be developed. We have tested the therapeutic potential of rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and three other autophagy activators (spermidine, carbamazepine, and tamoxifen) in a FTLD-U mouse model with TDP-43 proteinopathies. Rapamycin treatment has been reported to be beneficial in some animal models of neurodegenerative diseases but not others.
The effect of spermidine on memory performance with older adults at risk for dementia: A randomized controlled trial.
Nutritional intervention with the natural polyamine spermidine, an autophagy-enhancing agent, can prevent memory loss in aging model organisms. This is the first human study to evaluate the impact of spermidine supplementation on memory performance in older adults at risk for the development of Alzheimer's disease.